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Abiotic environmental factors

The movements of Earth in relation to the Sun generate a strong annual cycle of radiation and temperature that further affects other environmental factors such as soil moisture and air humidity. Environmental factors affect physiological processes and therefore, identification and understanding of their nature is… Read More »Abiotic environmental factors


Photosynthesis is the most fundamental process in plants because it provides raw material for growth and stores energy for later use in vital functions. In photosynthesis, the energy of solar radiation is converted into chemical form using atmospheric carbon dioxide and soil water. Meanwhile, oxygen… Read More »Photosynthesis

How to model photosynthesis?

Many years of measurements have provided a lot of information on the behaviour of the forest, how it photosynthesizes, transpires and respires. We know more or less what to expect the tree will do according to the time of the year, the availability of light, the air and soil temperature and the water availability… Read More »How to model photosynthesis?

How to model soil respiration?

Years of measurements have produced a lot of information on soil respiration. We know more or less how the respiration rate is related to changing environmental conditions, as plant respiration and soil respiration follows temperature exponentially. Approximately, respiration rates doubles for every 10°C increase in… Read More »How to model soil respiration?


A greenhouse gas is a gas in the atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiation within the thermal infrared range causing the greenhouse effect. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of the chief greenhouse gases. Its concentration has increased as a result from fossil fuel emissions (i.e.… Read More »Forests

Year in a forest

The dynamics of a boreal forest throughout the year is strongly marked by the seasonality of the subarctic climate, which is the climatic area in the world where boreal forests thrive. In this area, forests typically experience a long cold season and a relatively short… Read More »Year in a forest

Lifetime of a forest

Species composition in forests is mainly driven by climate (which determines air temperature), and by latitude (which determines light intensity). However, natural plant communities influence the present environment as well. Succession describes these natural changes in an ecosystem. Plant species, especially trees, change the air… Read More »Lifetime of a forest